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Meaning Time Indicators Examples

The action accomplished before a given moment in the Past

  • The moment is indicated by the phrase

"by + Noun"

"By the time + Clause"

  • The past moment is indicated by another action in the past
  • In the models:


When + Noun + Verb/past/

No sooner........than


by that time, by the end of the year They had done it by 5.

They had done it by the time she came.

They had done it before the storm began.

Hardly had they done it when the child began to cry

No sooner had he done it than the child began to cry


The action began before the given past moment and continued into the past moment

  • With verbs not used in the Progressive forms
  • In negative sentences
  • With non-terminative verbs such as: to work, to teach, to live, to travel, to study, to learn
since + Clause

since, for + Noun

They had been friendly since the very first meeting

They had not done their work since he returned home



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