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Extra Classroom Teaching  Tips for Pre -  Intermediate Students / taken from EnglishFile , Oxford University Press

1.Use choral repetition
Students repeating together after you to drill the pronunciation of new words, intonation, etc. is still very useful and confidence-building at elementary level. A lively chorus can also wake a sleepy class and provides a change of pace and focus. Mix whole class repetition with asking individuals to repeat after you to check.

2. Be visual whenever possible
Flashcards, magazine pictures, board drawings, mime, and gesture are all still very relevant at this level to put across meaning and set up student practice. The more visual your language presentations are, the more memorable they will be for your students. Build up your own library of magazine pictures (e.g. of famous people, activities, etc.). Cover them with plastic for long life.

3. Think about your board work
The board is your main teaching aid. Think how best to use it. Write clearly, and make sure students copy correctly. Tell them when and when not to write things down. Always mark the stress on new poly-syllabic words. Try to remember to write up new vocabulary in sentences. Plan grammar explanations beforehand and decide what you want to highlight, using coloured chalk/pens. Leave one section of the board clear for new vocabulary.

4. Give clear instructions
It's crucial that students understand what they have to do. Always give instructions in English first but check in L1 if it's a complicated activity. A useful technique is to explain in English then choose a student at random to say in L1 what he/she thinks they have to do. It's vital to check everyone knows what they have to do before you start an activity, especially A-B pairwork activities. Demonstrate activities yourself taking the part of e.g. Student A and getting the class or an individual student to take the part of B. Don't be afraid of stopping and starting again if you realise an activity is going wrong.

5. Teach your students to be good learners
There are many things students can do to help themselves to learn more efficiently. Encourage students to:
- buy a file and organize it into sections
- buy a good dictionary
- do homework regularly
- revise regularly and copy up notes taken in class
- have a 'handout partner' to take copies for each other and who they can ring to get homework when ill, etc.
- find someone to practise English with outside class and do homework together (e.g. a student that lives near them or who arrives at school early)

6. Always set homework
Emphasize the importance of students doing their homework. Don't set homework just after the bell goes - allow time to tell students what you want them to do. It's a good idea to set aside a few minutes every class to correct exercises and feedback problems. Find out why students aren't doing homework where this is the case. Encourage them to do some 'oral homework' too, e.g. saying words and phrases aloud, testing another student on vocabulary, or just talking to each other in English.

7. Motivate students to learn vocabulary
The vocabulary load in first year was very restricted - in second year there is an increased memory load. Stress the importance of revising vocabulary regularly and make sure students do this by giving frequent short vocabulary tests. Teach students ways of testing themselves and each other on vocabulary groups.

8. Teach your students to use a bilingual dictionary
Make sure students have got a good bilingual dictionary. Teach the typical abbreviations and give them practice in looking up words. Being able to recognize some phonetic symbols, especially vowels and the seven consonants which are different from letters of the alphabet will help students to get the most out of their dictionary.

9. Encourage students to read
Reading is the key to vocabulary extension and can greatly increase students' weekly contact with English. Try to get students to read at least three readers a term.

10. Make listening a positive experience
For many students listening, especially to cassettes, is a stressful activity. Make students feel they have achieved something in listening activities, and give plenty of encouragement. Prepare well for listening exercises: set the counter at zero, check your equipment, and always play the tape as many times as students need. Use yourself as a motivating source of listening practice - tell personal anecdotes that reinforce a language point. Train students to listen carefully to each other in pair and group work and emphasize that this is another important source of listening practice.

11. Make English the language of the classroom
Talk naturally with contractions but not too fast, and repeat as often as necessary, especially at the beginning of the course. Phase out your use of students' L1 gently. At the same time, you should avoid overload and you could still use students' L1 to clarify doubts especially with grammar explanations. Students should know they can say 'Can I speak (Italian)?' if they have a problem. You could also put key classroom phrases up around the class.

12. Get students to talk in English as much as possible
Always look for ways to personalize and get students to give their opinions. In pairwork speaking activities get students to ask follow-up questions when their partner responds to a question, i.e. to ask another question. This is the main advance from beginner level where students cannot normally go beyond the question-answer stage. Put students in pairs whenever possible so they have to at least formulate words orally together, e.g. when answering an exercise.

13. Don't over-correct
Making mistakes is an important part of language-learning. Students naturally like being corrected but it can be very demotivating if every time they say anything the teacher corrects or improves it! Obviously, at certain stages, e.g. controlled practice of new language, mistakes must be picked up and corrected, but in freer activities encourage students to keep talking to build confidence and fluency.

14. Motivate students to work on their pronunciation
Don't aim too high and give plenty of encouragement. Students' pronunciation doesn't have to be perfect but it needs to be sufficiently clear for communication and for students' own confidence.

15. Don't have the book open all the time
Often the best moments in classes are when books are closed and attention focused on the teacher or on a surprise activity. Use warmers, books-closed presentations, or photocopiable activities to give variety to your lessons.

16. Revise constantly
As students' knowledge of English increases, revision becomes even more essential as it becomes increasingly harder for them to remember everything they know. Recycle grammar and vocabulary constantly, and encourage students to test themselves and each other.
Always revise what you did in the previous lesson.


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